State of the US confederacy. According to abbreviationfinder, New York had the first settlers in 1609, under Dutch protectorate from 1624 with the name of New Holland (Nieuw Nederland). Passed under the English protectorate in 1664, and in 1688, at the fall of the Stuarts, under the brief dictatorship of a German, G. Leisler, the State, to defend itself from the French, was based on the alliance with the Iroquois Indians and, against politics English fiscal, was associated with various attempts at federation for the colonies and finally (1776) with the declaration of independence, while the city of New York remained garrisoned by the British for the duration of the wars of independence. In 1788 he accepted the Federal Constitution and with its demographic weight played an increasingly decisive part in the political destinies of the USA, although the administrative life of the city of New York, dominated in the century.
According to countryaah, New York has the following main cities:
City of the USA (93,963 inhab. In 2006), capital of the State of New York (from 1797), on the right of the river Hudson. River port, transit port for New York StateBargeCanal. Industrial activities in the steel, mechanical, chemical, paper, food and oil refining sectors.
A Dutch factory with the name of Rensselaerswyck , A. took its present name in honor of the Duke of Albany, when it passed to England in 1664. Due to its frontier position it grew in importance during the colonial wars for the domination of North America, and was established during the war of independence.
New York City
City of the USA (8,363,710 inhabitants in 2008), in the homonymous state. It rises at the mouth of the river Hudson in the Atlantic Ocean, partly above the mainland, but especially above the islands that close the Upper Bay: Manhattan and Staten Island first, and then the western section of Long Island. Within administrative boundaries (boroughs of Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens and Staten Island) the city covers 829 km 2 and stretches, from north to S, for over 150 km. The metropolitan area is instead of 17,900 km 2, affecting not only the State of N., but also those of New Jersey and Connecticut and including other notable cities (Yonkers, Mount Vernon, New Rochelle, Jersey City, Bayonne, Richmond, Elizabeth, Newark, Peterson etc.). The climate is continental with abundant rainfall.
- Urban development
New York fortune was originally due to its position on the river, whose valley represented the best route to the lake region since 1609 (voyage of Captain Harry Hudson). When a continuous river communication was opened between the lakes and the ocean (Erie Canal, 1825) and the first railways were created (1851, line New York – Albany) began the growth of New York, which immediately became the major point of contact between America and Europe : in 1870 57% in value of US trade passed through here. Towards the Hudson Valley they found a natural economic outlet, to the west the region between the Allegheny Mountains and the Great Lakes, rich in mineral deposits (coal, oil, iron), and to the north that of the Laurentian reliefs, with intense farming and vast forests.
New York development also became dizzying due to the influx of European emigrants (49,401 inhabitants in 1790; 1,911,698 in 1880; 5,620,048 in 1920). The scarcity of space available in the city center, especially in some areas of the island of Manhattan, has favored the typical building with vertical development. The increase in the number of inhabitants was constant until the 1970s, when a massive transfer began to take place in the peri-urban belt and in the neighboring towns, especially of the middle class.. The last decade of the 20th century. and the early years of the 21st century represented a resurgence of demographic attraction for the main urban nucleus, mainly due to the successes of the severe anti-crime campaigns, the decrease in ethnic clashes and the improvement in the quality of life. At the same time, there has been a marked change of population, particularly in the southern section of Manhattan, home to the large financial and commercial organizations, where the surge in real estate values resulting from the strong demand for offices has caused a reduction in the availability of housing. The rise in settlement costs, together with the possibility of relocation linked to telematics advances, has led many companies to relocate their offices to less prestigious spaces in the metropolitan area, such as those of New Jersey.
Characteristic of New York is the multi-ethnic composition of the population: the white community of European roots is dominated by the set of black and Hispano-American (27% each) and Asian (10%) minorities. Equally characteristic is the concentration of economic, cultural, scientific and entertainment activities, which make N. the main metropolis in the world. A city of contrasts and profound contradictions, within its borders, Pharaonic riches and dramatic forms of marginalization and social hardship coexist.
- Economic activities
From a functional point of view, New York plays the role of a world-class political and economic decision-making center. In N. the small establishments of the light and specialized industry have a certain prominence, especially clothing, but also mechanical and electromechanical constructions, scientific instruments, graphic-publishing and food industries. On the outskirts, and especially along the waterways, the great branches of chemistry and metallurgy are concentrated. Finally, aeronautical and space constructions are located in the region. The tertiary sector has a conspicuous upward trend. Within this sector, public and private services, administrative activities, credit and insurance institutions, real estate companies, advertising play a leading role. the world entire.
Despite the building and demographic congestion, communications within the metropolitan area are fast, above all thanks to the efficient road structures (urban highways) and the metropolitan network (370 km); the Hudson Rivers ed East River, crossed by bridges, are underpassed by 5 tunnels. The exceptional size of human contacts is underlined by an annual amount of 2.4 billion trips, almost 60% of which are ensured by the underground network. The growth of the passenger movement of the airports of the metropolitan area is very impetuous, reaching about 100 million in 2005. The primacy of the city in the Internet network is inserted in the same context, for which it represents, at the beginning of the 2000s, a node (gateway) with a flow rate of nearly 500 gigabits per second.
As regards communications with the outside world, New York is the main road and rail hub in the country. The port is one of the largest ports in the world, even if the commercial movement has significantly reduced, it still performs fundamental functions, especially for imports (minerals, foodstuffs, tropical agricultural products), also in connection with the internal waterway system.
The municipality has been heavily involved in energy saving policies, making significant progress in the field of environmental sustainability. In addition to three airports, the city is served by four heliports. N.’s role in the cultural sphere is very remarkable, thanks to the numerous educational institutions (middle and university) and culture that the city hosts.
The first origin of New York dates back to 1626, when the Dutch P. Minnewit bought the island of Manhattan from the Indians and had the fort built there. Amsterdam. A shopping mall (called New Amsterdam) arose around the fort, populating itself with Protestant refugees from all over Europe and the New England. Due to the despotic government of the Dutch Company of Indie Westerners, the inhabitants forced the governor P. Stuyvesant to surrender, when the English fleet presented itself in front of the city (1664); this became an English possession, while in honor of the Duke of York it assumed its current name, together with the entire territory of New Holland. Returned to the Dutch (1673-74), the city was in English hands from 1776 to 1783; from 1789 to 1790 it was the seat of the United States government. During the civil war (1862-65) it was the scene of riots against conscription and even tried to establish itself as an autonomous republic.
The Grande New York (so called since 1898, when the incorporation of the neighboring administrative districts ended) due to its character as a metropolis of international trade was later hostile to protectionism and favorable to the pro-European policy of League of Nations. On September 11, 2001, Manhattan was the subject of an unprecedented terrorist attack. Two airliners, hijacked by groups of Islamic terrorists, crashed into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center within a few tens of minutes, causing the collapse of the same towers and some neighboring buildings, and thousands of victims.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
From the first Dutch and English settlements, to the extreme tip of Manhattan, the city developed by incorporating villages (Green; wich, Nieuw Haarlem), estates, farms, industries. The first floor for Manhattan (1807-11) defined the gridiron system with 12 avenues, arteries running through the island from south to north and 155 streets, from east to west In 1858 FL Olmstead and C. Vaux presented the plan for the Greensward (Central Park, 400 ha approx.): significant example of landscape architecture, also qualifying the contiguous land. The public and religious buildings and the residences of N.’s most prominent families, built in the 19th century, reflect European classical or Gothic styles: City Hall (1802-11, JF Mangin); US Custom House (1834-42, now Federal Hall Nation; at the Memorial); St. Patrick’s Cathedral (1888, J. Renwick). Original expression of 19th century architecture. are the brownstone houses, Connecticut stone, A. Isozaki in 1992 as Guggenheim Museum SoHo). From the end of the century, the achievements of the McKim, Mead and White studio (Villard Houses, 1882-85; Pierpont Morgan Library (1902-07); buildings of the Columbia University (1893-1913) etc. which, together with other monumental achievements, such as the NY Public Library (1897-1911, Carrère & Hastings), were part of the ideals pursued by the NY City Improvement Commission (1904-07). Since 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge (JA and W. Roebling), the first of N.’s characteristic suspension bridges, has connected Manhattan to Brooklyn, an independent city until its annexation to Greater New York City (1898).
In 1902 D. Burnham built the Fuller (later Flatiron) Building, a prototype of steel skeleton skyscrapers: a new typology that made the midtown and downtown skyline peculiar with the various forms of historical and art deco styles (American Radiator Building, 1924, R. Hood; Chrysler Building, 1929, W. van Alen; Empire State Building, 1931, Shreve, Lamb & Harmon; RCA Building, 1931, Cross & Cross, later General Electric). The Rockefeller Center was built between 1931 and 1940: to the 14 original buildings, designed by a group of architects (including R. Hood and WK Harrison), others were added (1947-73). Since 1931 the G. Washington Bridge connects Manhattan with New Jersey (of OH Amman, also author of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, 1964).
After 1950, the best known American and European architects left their mark on N.: Le Corbusier, O. Niemeyer, S. Markelius and WK Harrison (UN complex, 1952); SOM (Lever House, 1952; Islamic cultur; al center, 1992); L. Mies van der Rohe(Seagram Building, 1956); W. Gropius (PanAm Building, 1963); M. Yamasaki (World trade center, 1972, with E. Roth & Sons, destroyed in the 2001 terrorist attack); P. Johnson (AT&T Building, 1982); C. Skins (World financial center, 1982-88, damaged in 2001 and then restored). Also worthy of note are: C. de Portzamparc (seat of Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy, 1995-99); G. Lynn (Korean Presbyterian Church of Long Island City in Queens, with D. Garofalo and M. McInturf, 1995-99); R. Piano (New York Times headquarters, 2001-07, and Morgan Library expansion, 2006).
There are numerous educational and cultural institutions: Columbia University (formerly King’s College, 1754; with the Lerner Hall, of B. Tschumi, 1996-2000); NY University (1841) etc. Noteworthy are the multifunctional sports facilities (Madison square garden center, etc.) and the complex complex of the Lincoln center of the performing arts (1962-68).
Among the museums: American museum of natural history (1869, with the Rose center for earth and space, S. Pols; hek, 1999-2000); Metropolitan Museum (1870); Jewish Museum (1904, expanded K. Roche, 1993); Museum of Modern Art (founded 1929, P. Goodwin 1939; expanded by P. Johnson, 1956; C. Pelli, 1985; Y. Tamaguchi, 1997); National museum of the American Indian (1916; new headquarters at Custom House, 1994) SR Guggenheim Museum (founded 1937; FL Wright, 1959; expanded Gwathmey, Siegel & Ass., 1987); Whitney museum of American art (founded 1930; M. Breuer, 1966); Museum of broadcasting (founded 1965, J. Burges, 1990); New museum of contemporary art (SANAA, 2007).