Federated state of the USA (314,925 km 2 with 1,984,356 inhabitants in 2008); capital Santa Fe. Borders to the north with the Colorado, to east with Oklahoma (for a short distance) and with the Texas, to the south with Texas and with Mexico, west with Arizona. It consists of a series of rather arid plateaus, at the center of which rise some ranges belonging to the Rocky Mountains including that of the Sangre de Cristo (with the highest elevation in the state, Mount Wheeler, 4011 m) and the Sacramento Mountains. The climate, steppe to the north and desert to the S, is characterized by strong temperature variations and scarce rainfall.
According to abbreviationfinder, the region of New Mexico was explored by the Spaniards; the first colonial settlement came with I. de Oñate (1598), which he founded San Juan and then Santa Fe. With the Mexican declaration of independence in 1821, New Mexico established a province of the new state. Annexed in 1848 by the United States, in 1850 the territory of New Mexico was established (which included Colorado until 1861 and Arizona until 1863). During the Civil War he first sided with the Confederates and in 1862 he passed to the Union. It was formally admitted as a state in January 1912.
The state has a population of 423,317. (1930), with a density of only 1.3 inhabitants per sq. Km. The most densely populated county was that of Bernalillo (with the center of Albuquerque), with 14 inhabitants; the most depopulated Catron, along the western border, with 0.2 inhabitants per sq. km. Only three centers in 1930 exceeded 10,000 inhabitants, namely Roswell on the Río Hondo (Pecos) with 11,173 inhabitants; Santa Fé, the capital, with 11,176 inhabitants and Albuquerque, on the Río Grande, with 26,570 inhabitants. From the ethnic point of view, in 1930, the population of New Mexico was made up as follows: Whites 78.4%; Negroes 0.7%; Mexicans 14%; Indians 6.8%; Japanese 0.1%. The Whites born abroad were only 7797, of which 1259 Italians, 1101 English and 936 Germans. The state had the following population increase: 61,547 inhabitants in 1850.
According to countryaah, New Mexico has the following main cities:
Capital city of the state of New Mexico (United States), capital of the homonymous county; it rises on the Rio Santa Fe (Rio Grande basin), at about 2104 m. on the sea, at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo range. The climate is dry continental at altitude, with an average annual temperature of 9 °, 5, cold winters (−0 °, 5), hot summers (19 °, 4), with very accentuated absolute minimums and maximums: rainfall is scarce (355 mm.), With prevalence in the summer; notable snow (710 mm.) and the serenity of the sky, for which Santa Fe has become a health resort of some importance. Founded by the Spaniards, Santa Fe is a small town: 4635 residents in 1860, 5603 in 1900, 11,176 in 1930 (91.8% of indigenous whites; 2.4% of whites born abroad; 0.7% of Negroes). The city is located in an agricultural and mining district, favored by irrigation, and has considerable tourist interest. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, and Denver and Rio Grande Western Railways lines, and counts among the most notable cultural institutions the School of American Research and the Museum of New Mexico.
Monuments. – In modern Santa Fe you can find examples of architecture like the pueblos, with its characteristic windows and baked brick walls, shaded by the protruding beams of the flat roofs. Among them is the house which is traditionally considered to be the oldest building known to be built by Europeans in the United States. The need to use Indian labor and the lack of suitable material forced the Spaniards to adopt the local construction technique. The old governor’s palace, built in 1608-1610, during the administration of D. Pedro de Peralta, governor and captain general of the kingdom and provinces of New Mexico, stands on one side of the square and since 1910 has been the seat of a museum. Its flat, block-like surfaces, furrowed at regular intervals by the shadows of the wooden beams, have inspired many modern architects, including JH Rapp and AC Hendrickson, designers at the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe. The style of the pueblos and the Spanish style have successfully merged in this building, with its terraces, its sloping walls and its well-shaded windows, and a general appearance of primitive roughness, so as to produce a whole that is at the same time faithful to local traditions and suitable for modern purposes. The oldest ecclesiastical building in Santa Fe is the church of San Michele, built in a suburb of the city. The church of S. Francesco, built in 1622, was later replaced by the current cathedral, built in 1713-1714. The construction of the century. XVIII, with portal and two towers, resembles the churches of the missions in the southwestern part of the United States, but is of greater proportions.
City of the USA, in New Mexico (484.246 inhabitants in 2004), located at 1504 m above sea level on the Rio Grande. Founded in 1706 by Francisco Cuerbo. Cereal and timber market, with processing plants. Metalworking and oil refining industries. Seat of a university (1889) and health resort.