Mongolian literature, most of the literature written in the Uighur-Mongolian language.
13th to 16th century
The “Tschingis Stone” from around 1225, built in honor of a sporting-military competition, is considered to be the oldest Mongolian written monument. The most extensive and important historical and literary monument of the Mongols of that time is the “Secret History of the Mongols” (1240). It is divided into three parts: the first describes the youth of Genghis Khan, the union of the Mongolian tribes and his appointment as Great Khan. In the second, the conquests of Genghis Khanand the events in Mongolia itself are dealt with in detail. The last part is the reign of Ögädäis dedicated. Another early evidence of Mongolian poetry is a love poem from the 13th or early 14th century written on birch bark. Edicts and founding inscriptions on stone, documents of diplomatic correspondence, translations of Buddhist texts, vocabularies, fortune telling texts and calendars have also been preserved. Representatives of the Mongolian translation literature and poetry of this time are Tschoskyi Odzer and Schesrab Sengge; the other authors are anonymous.
Due to the disintegration of the Mongolian partial empires (since the middle of the 14th century), numerous written documents not only from the 13th and 14th centuries were lost; Persistent political turmoil also made the period from the late 14th to the late 16th century the “dark epoch” of Mongolian literature.
Late 16th to late 19th century
According to itypeauto, translated literature has played an important role in Mongolian literature, which has been reviving since the end of the 16th century, just as Mongolian literature of this time was largely influenced by others or modeled exactly accordingly. It was created – among other things. in connection with Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism), which was declared the state religion towards the end of the 16th century – a religious literature (including translations of the Tibetan Buddhist canon and Buddhist didactic works, church historiography based on the Tibetan model); Furthermore, fairy tales, fables, stories of peregrination and the journey to hell were created according to Indian-Tibetan patterns, translated from Chinese novels and Confucian writings and transferred from the Tibetan biographies of saints.
The important literary evidence of this time also includes family historiography (in chronicle form), shamanic poetry, the Genghis Khan proverb and the Geser Khan epic; in addition, legal and administrative texts have been preserved. The Buddhist translation literature is associated with names such as Ayusi Guosi and Siregetü Guosi Tschordschiwa (turn of the 16th / 17th centuries), the Mongolian chronicle literature with Lubsangdanjin and Saghang Setschen (middle of the 17th century), Rasipungsugh (18th century) and Isibaldan (19th century). Century).
The early genealogical literature and the description of Mongolian tribes (Byamba, 17th century, Guosi Dharma, 18th century) are free of foreign influences. Indschanaschi is considered to be the first author of a historical novel (but based on Chinese models).
At the end of the 19th century, there were rogue stories. Just like this, the newly emerging socially critical satire (against Chinese tutelage and the Lamaist clergy as well as the abuses associated with it) led with its representatives Shagdar (* 1869, † 1929), Khulitschi Sandag (* 1825, † 1860) and Isisambuu (* 1847, † 1896) to the literature of the 20th century. They are also the authors of poems and songs Kesigbatu (* 1849, † 1916) and Gamala (* 1871, † 1932) as well as the poet, writer of doctrines and the »Singspiel vom Mondkuckuck« Dandschinrabdschai (* 1803, †), which is still often staged today. 1856), then the real critic as a poet Isindangdschilwangdschil (* 1854, † 1907) assigned.
Traditional works such as ceremonial and shamanic poetry have survived from the first two decades of the 20th century, but after the decline of the Qing dynasty, which ruled the Mongolian regions of Inner and Outer Mongolia, it developed on the basis of the socially critical literature of the late 19th century – v. a. after 1924 a modern Mongolian literature in the Mongolian People’s Republic. This emphasizes the revolutionary as a preliminary stage to socialist realism and aims at planned economy ideals such as norm fulfillment and the new socialist people, often in the form of poetry, e.g. B. Daschdsewegijn Sengee (* 1916, † 1959), Zegmedijn Gajtaw (* 1929, † 1979), Begdsijn Jawuuchulan (* 1929, † 1982) and Sengijn Erdene (* 1929, † 2000), whose narrative work is characterized by masterful, colorful language and differentiated character representations.
With revolutionary poetry and drama, partly based on the old folk poetry in the form of fairy tales and legends, Sodnombaldschiryn Bujannemech (* 1902, † 1937), Daschdordschijn Natsagdordsch (* 1906, † 1937), who is considered the founder of modern Mongolian literature, wanted to and Tzendijn Damdinsüren (* 1908, † 1986) oppose the religious dance game (Tsam) and the Chinese theater with an alternative art form.
The genre comedy introduced Tschojdschamdsyn Ojdow (* 1917, † 1963), that of the drama Donrowyn Namdag (* 1911, † 1984) and Böchijn Baast (* 1921) into Mongolian literature.
Based in part on traditional templates, the modern Mongolian novel was written after 1948 (Bjambyn Rintschen, * 1905, † 1977; Tschadraawalyn Lodojdamba, * 1916, † 1970). The narrators who dealt with moral and psychological problems in socialist society include Erdenebatyn Ojuun (* 1918, † 1994), Sonomyn Udwal (* 1921, † 1994), Schandschmjatawyn Gaadamba (* 1924, † 1993) and Dembegijn Mjagmar (* 1933, † 1998). Other popular contemporary writers are D. Purewdorj (* 1933, † 2010), T. Otschirchüü (* 1943), S. Ojuun (* 1946), L. Tschoidschilsüren (* 1932), L. Tudew (* 1935) and S. Daschdoorow (* 1935, † 1999). The social, economic and cultural problems associated with the political turnaround and the transition from a planned to a market economy since the early 1990s are reflected in the works of younger Mongolian writers: the loss of the identity rooted in nomadic life, existential fear, alcoholism, Violence, greed, but also attempts to deal with social hardship with wit and mutual help. Mainly short stories, short stories and poems are written. D. Enkhbold (* 1959) is one of the best-known representatives of this generation, he describes a.o. Mongolian everyday life in the countryside with relentless openness. C. Galsan (* 1944), who belongs to the Tuvan people in western Mongolia, writes stories and poetry.