Mexican literature, is one of Latin American literature in Spanish. According to abbreviationfinder, Mexico City is the capital city of Mexico.
Spanish chroniclers were at the beginning of Mexican literature. One of the liveliest works from this rich literature, which began with the reports of the conquistador H. Cortés, was the “Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España” (written 1557–62, published 1632) by B. Díaz del Castillo. The clergyman B. de Las Casas wrote pamphlets for the respect of Indian cultures, the most important documents of which are preserved in the works of the monk Bernardino de Sahagúnand the historians of Indian origin. Only fragments are left of the work of the first Mexican-born poet Francisco de Terrazas (* 1525 [?], † 1600 [?]) Receive. Gongoristic baroque style shaped the lyrical-descriptive epic »La grandeza mexicana« (1604) by Bernardo del Balbuena (* 1561/62, † 1627). Born in Mexico, J. Ruiz de Alarcón y Mendoza became one of the creators of Spanish character comedy of the 17th century in Madrid. The flourishing culture of the viceroyalty residence in the 17th century represented BC. a. the nun J. Inés de la Cruz , who also became known in Europe under the honorary title of “tenth Muse of Mexico”.
After the literary scanty neoclassicism of the 18th century, J. J. Fernández de Lizardi, an important writer, emerged at the time of the wars of independence. The central figure of a nationalist romanticism was the poet and novelist I. M. Altamirano. Under the influence of the French Parnassia and Symbolists, the poets Salvador Díaz Mirón (* 1853, † 1928), Manuel José Othón (* 1858, † 1906) and M. Gutiérrez Nájera made the transition to modernism, which then v. a. A. Nervo and Enrique González Martínez (* 1871, 1952) continued. Naturalistic techniques characterized the novels of Rafael Delgado (* 1853, † 1914).
The revolution that began in 1910 was depicted in a variety of novels, including: by M. Azuela, J. Vasconcelos, M. L. Guzmán, Gregorio López y Fuentes (* 1895, † 1967), Rafael Felipe Muñoz (* 1899, † 1972) and A. Yáñez. Another important topic was the way of life and conditions of the Indians, which were described in the indigenous novels by R. Castellanos and others. were treated.
The avant-garde tendencies following modernist poetry were represented by the staff of the magazine »Contemporáneos« (1928–31): Carlos Pellicer (* 1899, † 1977), Jaime Torres Bodet (* 1902, † 1974) and X. Villaurrutia. Stronger political commitment, but also hermetic encryption, characterized the poets around the magazine »Taller« (1938–41), of which O. Paz, who also emerged as an essayist, occupied a prominent place.
The magical realist J. Rulfo, who is considered one of the fathers of boom literature, and the fantastic storyteller J. J. Arreola achieved great influence beyond Mexico; like A. Yáñez, both became known far beyond their national borders and wrote world literature. The conflicts of post-revolutionary society were shaped in the novels by J. Revueltas and C. Fuentes.
With the help of state funding, a high-performance theater that is open to experimentation was created. The playwrights R. Usigli, Rafael Solana (* 1915, † 1992), Elena Garro (* 1920, † 1998) and Emilio Carballido (* 1925, † 2008) also became internationally known. – The more recent Mexican essay writing is also important (Carlos Monsiváis, * 1938, † 2010 and others).
The most important lyricists following Paz include, inter alia. J. Sabines, Marco Antonio Montes de Oca (* 1932, † 2009), J. E. Pacheco and Homero Aridjis (* 1940).
The younger authors of the youth movement “Onda” showed a tendency to deepen psychological or grotesque or ironic dramatization of the everyday and thus to turn away from the myths of the revolution. At the same time, new techniques of language use (argot, colloquial language) became visible, e. B. with Gustavo Sainz (* 1940, † 2015) and José Agustín (* 1944). F. del Paso emerged as one of the main exponents of the “New Historical Novel”, which in part parodistically “overwrites” the myths of historiography. E. Poniatowska introduced testimonial literature from the perspective of women.
Since the beginning of the 1980s, the »vanguardia blanca«, an introverted, self-referential avant-garde, which is determined by David Huerta (* 1949), Alberto Blanco (* 1951) and Coral Bracho (* 1951), has developed in poetry.
In the 1990s, the group “Crack” (J. Volpi ; Ignacio Padilla, * 1968) emerged in Mexico City, who programmatically set themselves apart from the epigones of the magical realism they called “Macondismo” and increasingly focus on topics of turned to European history. The internationally known contemporary writers who cannot be assigned to any particular literary movement include: S. Pitol and J. Villoro .
So far, a Mexican writer has received the Nobel Prize for Literature: O. Paz (1990).
World Heritage Sites in Mexico
World Heritage Sites (K) and World Natural Heritage (N)
- Historic Center of Mexico City and the City of Xochimilco (K; 1987)
- Pre-Columbian City and Palenque National Park (K; 1987)
- Pre-Columbian city of Teotihuacán (K; 1987)
- Old town of Oaxaca and ruins of Monte Albán (K; 1987)
- Historic Center of Puebla (K; 1987)
- Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve (N; 1987)
- Historical center and mining facilities Guanajuato (K; 1988)
- Ruins of Chichén Itzá (K; 1988)
- Old town of Morelia (K; 1991)
- Archaeological site of El Tajín (K; 1992)
- El-Vizcaíno lagoon (whale sanctuary) (N; 1993)
- Old town of Zacatecas (K; 1993)
- Pre-Columbian rock carvings in the Sierra de San Francisco (K; 1993)
- 16th century monasteries on the slopes of Popocatépetl (K; 1994)
- Pre-Columbian city of Uxmal (K; 1996)
- Architectural monuments of the city of Querétaro (K; 1996)
- Hospicio Cabañas in Guadalajara (K; 1997)
- City of Tlacotalpan (K; 1998)
- Archaeological sites of Paquimé in Casas Grandes (K; 1998)
- Xochicalco Archaeological Site (K; 1999)
- Historic center and fortress of the city of Campeche (K; 1999)
- Ruins of the Mayan city of Calakmul (K; 2002)
- Franciscan Missions of the Sierra Gorda in the state of Querétaro (K; 2003)
- Luís Barragán’s house and studio in Mexico City (K; 2004)
- Islands and Reserves of the Gulf of California (N; 2005)
- Agave landscape and historical tequila production sites (K; 2006)
- University campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City (K; 2007)
- Mariposa Monarca Biosphere Reserve (N; 2008)
- Fortress of San Miguel de Allende and the pilgrimage church of Jesus de Nazareno in Atotonilco (K; 2008)
- Historic trade route Camino Real de Tierra Adentro – » Silver Road « (K; 2010)
- Prehistoric caves of Yagul and Mitla in the valley of Oaxaca (K; 2010)
- El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve (N; 2013)
- Aqueduct of Padre Tembleque (K; 2015)
- Revillagigedo Islands (N; 2016)
- Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (C / N; 2018)