History of Moldova
The area has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era. Archaeological excavations show that people lived here as early as 7000 BC. For many centuries, due to its important location, the territory as a bridge across Europe and Asia served as the scene of many wars of the Romans, Huns, Tatars, Turks, Germans and other peoples. In the 13th century the territory between the Carpathians and the Black Sea became part of the Mongol Empire.
As an independent state, the “Land of Moldova” dates from the first document in 1359, the mention of the ethnic people “Moldovans” appeared in 1391. In the wars with the Turks, Janissaries, Hungarian and Polish royal troops, with the troops of the Crimean Khan, the sovereignty of Moldova was won. In the 16th century it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, under the Turkish yoke, waging a liberation struggle, was almost 300 years old. In 1812, under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest, after the Russo-Turkish War (1806–12), the eastern part of Moldavia ceded to Tsarist Russia, receiving the name of Bessarabia, and became a geographical entity separate from the Moldavian Principality. In January 1918, Soviet power was proclaimed; on March 27, 1918, Romania annexed the Russian part of Moldavia. The Soviet Union did not recognize this capture.
In 1924, the Autonomous Moldavian Republic was formed as part of the Soviet Ukraine. In 1940, Bessarabia was annexed to the USSR and the Moldavian SSR was proclaimed. It included 9 Bessarabian counties and 6 districts of the Left Bank of the Dniester. In 1989, the movement for national independence began, and in 1990 the sovereignty of the republic was proclaimed, since August 27, 1991 – the independent Republic of Moldova. In 1992, a short civil war on ethnic grounds between the right and left banks of the Dniester ended in a split of the territory. The left bank proclaimed itself an autonomous state – the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (1994, not recognized by other countries).
In April 2003, after 11 years of unsuccessful negotiations on the status of the PMR with the participation of mediators (OSCE, Russian Federation, Ukraine), the parties agreed with the OSCE project on the federalization of the country and immediately began to develop a new Constitution of the Federative Republic of Moldova. A referendum on the adoption of a new Constitution – in 2004, elections of federal authorities – in 2005.
Science and culture of Moldova
According to searchforpublicschools, the central body for managing science is the Supreme Council for Science and Technological Development, which includes 6 representatives of the central apparatus of the Ministry of Education and Science, 4 from the Academy of Sciences, 8 from the Research Institute of Technical and Economic Information. Number of research institutions – 85 (2001). The Academy of Sciences has 6 sections: physical and mathematical, biological and chemical, humanities, agricultural, medical, technical. Scientific potential – 3200 specialists, incl. 246 Doctors of Sciences, 966 Candidates of Sciences (2002).
In Moldavia compulsory general 9-year secondary education, complete secondary education – 11-12 years. Total 1500 educational institutions, incl. 45 institutions of higher education, of which 33 are private. In 2002, 95 thousand students studied at universities. At the beginning of the academic year 2002, there were 672 daytime general education gymnasiums and 211 daytime lyceums with 603 thousand students, 63 specialized educational institutions with 15.2 thousand students.
Spending on education and health care in 2002 was 5% and 3% of GDP, respectively.
Modern Moldavian culture, literature and art are in their infancy. But even now such masters as writer I. Druta, composer E. Doga, film actress S. Toma, opera singer M. Bieshu, pop singer N. Chepraga, young artists Y. Matei, A. Mudrya and others are recognized outside the country. There are 7 museums permanently operating in the republic (in Chisinau) – the National Museum of Ethnography and Nature, the National Museum of the History of Moldova, the National Museum of Arts, the House-Museum of A.S. Pushkin, there is an exhibition hall of the Union of Artists, many museum branches. There are 12 professional theaters. Many libraries, incl. National Library and Municipal Library. B.P. Khashdeu with 46 branches, art library, libraries of Jewish, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian and Gagauz literature. Moldova is rich in folk art, Traditions in pottery, carpet making, and woodcarving are especially carefully preserved. The music festivals “Martisor” and “Maria Biesu Invites” are regularly held, the folk music and dance groups “Jok”, “Fluerash” are widely known in the republic and abroad. Cultural events of the national and international level are held – the national drama competition and the international festival “Eugen Ionesco”.