In 1887 the main task of Bismarck, who in the meantime (1883) has drawn Romania into his system of alliances is that of the renewal of the Triple: that is, to protect Austria from Russian aggression and to separate Italy from France. The negotiations began as early as 1886. The Russian attempt to break the European equilibrium to the detriment of Austria is noteworthy in this same year. In fact, the Russian ambassador in Berlin declares to the German Foreign Minister: “The only sound and solid alliance is the Russo-Germanic one; we must make Austria disappear from the map of Europe: you take the German provinces and nothing will be able anymore. politically separate us “. The Russian offer and Bismarck’s rejection at the very moment in which the agreement between the three imperial powers ends, seems to have to precipitate events; except that Bismarck manages to ensure from Russia a new guarantee to Germany, through the so-called counter-insurance treaty and himself takes, in his own hands, the negotiations with Italy, for the renewal of the Triplex, which in 1882 had been almost exclusively from Austria. Not all the difficulties are easily overcome this time in order to bring Austria and Italy to an agreement; so that the latter, by reconfirming the previous treaty, extends it with two particular treaties, an Italian-German one that concerns the colonial aspirations of Italy, and an Italian-Austrian one with clauses concerning the Balkan question (February 20, 1887).
According to INTERSHIPPINGRATES.COM, the renewal of the Triple Confirmation and, in a certain way, consolidates Germany’s ties with Austria, while Italy’s participation continues to favor Bismarck’s policy vis-à-vis France, and the counter-insurance treaty guarantees it towards Russia. at the same time that Bismarck manages to attract England and Spain into the orbit of his system of alliances, through special agreements (1887). The counter-insurance treaty is still the mainstay of the Bismarckian political system; the German Chancellor, in 1896, deplored the failure to renew this pact of guarantee, which expired in 1890, because he sensed that Russia, freed from any commitment with Germany, would end up binding itself to France, upsetting the
In the year 1888, William I died at the age of 91. His successor, Frederick III, followed him after three months to the tomb, leaving no noticeable trace of his fleeting passage to the throne and hastening the succession of his still very young son. William to the throne of Prussia and that of Germany. The new emperor, of lively intelligence but too restless and changeable according to the various influences and the moments, also animated by a good will to do in favor of Germany, but at the same time vain to the extreme, impulsive and generally devoid of tact. so as to hurt in delicate moments the susceptibility even of friends and relatives to him, and then marred by the flattery of the courtiers, marks in the history of Germany the passage from the enlightened absolutism of the Iron Chancellor to thewilliam ii). So far not William I “the old sleeping emperor”, but Bismarck has reigned; the new sovereign disdains protections: it is fatal that between him and the old chancellor the outbreak of the storm cannot be far away. William II’s intention to free himself from Bismarck’s dominant personality is immediately clear, but Bismarck remains and struggles – according to himself – for a high sense of duty and responsibility. On the outside there is a very sensitive political balance to be preserved, there is a socialist danger on the inside to be overcome, there is, above all, the emperor to supervise and guide. But William II begins to act unconstitutionally, conferring with ministers, skipping the chancellor, while the latter challenges the right to receive whoever he wants in his house, as a minister. The struggle is now clear to all: in a cabinet session Bismarck informs the ministers of his relations with the emperor and concludes: “I therefore asked for my leave by sovereign order”. And even before he receives an answer to the request for resignation, GL v. Caprivi takes possession of part of the chancellor’s offices. Finally the emperor responds by accepting his resignation and expressing the confidence “that even for the future I and the country will not lack your advice, your energy, your fidelity and your devotion”. But Bismarck from now on will not be asked for more than any advice. And even before he receives an answer to the request for resignation, GL v. Caprivi takes possession of part of the chancellor’s offices. Finally the emperor responds by accepting his resignation and expressing the confidence “that even for the future I and the country will not lack your advice, your energy, your fidelity and your devotion”. But Bismarck from now on will not be asked for more than any advice.