According to abbreviationfinder, Brisbane is the capital of the state Queensland, Australia, seaport on the Brisbane River, 28 km upstream of its confluence with the Pacific (2018) 2.4 million residents in the metropolitan area.
Queensland’s cultural, administrative and economic center; Seat of an Anglican and a Catholic bishop; University of Queensland (founded in 1909) and two other universities as well as several colleges, Queensland Art Gallery (works of classical and modern art) and Queensland Museum; Financial and trade center, information technology, oil refinery, mechanical engineering, iron, paper and textile industries; The processing and export of agricultural products (including wool, meat) are important; an important economic factor is tourism on internationally known beaches on the Pacific coast (including the Sunshine Coast and Gold Coast); international Airport.
The center of the city with a chessboard-like floor plan and high-rise office buildings (City) is located on a river terrace; the residential districts are suburbs on the surrounding hills, the industrial, airport and port area downstream.
Brisbane was a deportation point from 1824–39; Released for settlement in 1842.
Historicism shaped Australian architecture in the 19th century. The first significant buildings were built by Francis Howard Greenway (* 1777, † 1837), from 1816 city architect in Sydney, among others. the Macquari lighthouse (1818) and the Church of Saint James (1819). Like the public buildings designed by the Englishman John Lee Archer (* 1791, † 1852), they are in the Georgian style.
John Verge (* 1782, † 1861) based his country houses on English models in the Regency style. James Blackburn (* 1803, † 1854) took up elements of Norman architecture in church construction, and followed the Greek Revival in public buildings. In the style of the Gothic Revival, James Hume (active in the 1st half of the 19th century) initiated the construction of Saint Andrew’s Cathedral in Sydney (laying of the foundation stone in 1819), which Edmund Blacket (* 1817, † 1883) started in the mid-1850s. was continued (consecrated in 1868; restored 1999–2000). E. Blacket was instrumental in the spread of the Gothic Revival (among other things, he created the plans for the main building of the University in Sydney, 1855 ff.); also William Wardell (* 1823, † 1900) designed buildings in the style of the Gothic Revival (including Saint Patrick’s Cathedral in Melbourne, 1865). Developed towards the end of the 19th century, among others. in Perth, numerous brick buildings in the Queen Anne style.
From 1913 onwards, the city of Canberra was laid out according to the plan of the American architect Walter Griffin (* 1876, † 1937). designed the University of Melbourne (1917) and the Capitol Theater (1924) in Melbourne. In the 20th century, Australian architecture gradually broke away from its close orientation towards English models. One of the first lead of the specialized Wohnhausbauten Sydney Ancher (* 1904, † 1979) together with Bryce Mortlock (* 1921, † 2004), Stuart Murray (born 1926) and Kenneth Woolley (* 1933, † 2015) that comes with it were connected in an architectural community, in the 1940s that of Le Corbusier and L. Mies van der Rohe trained international style in Australia. Committed to this – interspersed with playful elements of postmodernism since the 1970s – are also Collin Madigan (* 1921, † 2011), H. Seidler, Peter McIntyre (* 1927), Bruce Rickard (* 1929, † 2010), Philip Cox (* 1939) and J. Andrews . The latter aroused, inter alia. with the Convention Center Darling Harbor in Sydney (1989) and the World Congress Center and Eden on the Yarra Hotel in Melbourne (1989). C. Madigan built the Australian National Gallery in Canberra (1981) and the New Parliament House on Capital Hill (inaugurated in 1988).
Seidler, known as an Australian specialist in tower construction with skyscrapers in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, built a.o. several commercial skyscrapers that have become landmarks in Australian cities: in Sydney the Australia Square Tower (1967), MLC Tower (1978) and Grosvenor Place Tower (1988), in Melbourne the Grollo Tower (1995–2000). His Capita Tower in Sydney (1989) already pointed the way to ecological high-rise architecture; his most important urban project is the redesign of the former port area there (Darling Harbor development, 1988).
Among the foreign architects who gave the modern architecture of Australia significant impulses, the Dane J. Utzon is particularly noteworthy with his design for the Sydney Opera House (opened in 1973). Since the 1980s, John Denton, Bill Corkerand Barrie Marshall have also been doing it (represented with its own architectural office in Melbourne since 1972) with urban planning concepts and individual buildings attracted attention (in Melbourne e.g. Exhibition Center, 1993–96; Melbourne Museum, 1994–2000; three high-rise buildings, between 1981 and 1990; international Plain the embassies of Australia in Beijing, 1982–92, and Tokyo, 1986–90). G. Murcutt , who was awarded the Pritzker Prize in 2002, represents innovative architecture adapted to the cultural and climatic conditions in Australia.